Thousands of clay tablets with record of political treaties between Hittites and other nations were discovered in Bogazkoy, Turkey in 1876-1906.

As a result of the investigations, it was found that the structure of six consecutive pericopes (literary elements) of the Book of Exodus 1-18 fulfills the requirements imposed by the literary scheme… of the Hittite alliance treaties discovered on the clay tablets.

Alliance treaties are official political documents written by scribes (specially prepared for this task) after the conclusion of the alliance between two countries. These treaties, being preserved in sanctuaries of both allied countries, had to testify about contracting the pact – the alliance – in this case between Hittites and other countries.

In the period from the sixteenth to the twelfth century before Christ, the treaties had to have six consecutive parts, namely:

  1. The historic prologue showing a contribution of a stronger partner to the life of a weaker partner in their hitherto existing history – that is until the day when they met to perform the four-element ceremonial of covenant-making, what had to be accomplished in four consecutive steps: 2, 3, 4 and 5.
  2. Presentation of two covenant partners, in this the show, full of eastern exaggeration, of the majesty of a stronger partner and his magnanimous promise of a gift-giving for a weaker partner (for example, the bestowal of a territory).
  3. Presentation of the basic covenant law, whose aim was to make the weaker partner remembering about the undertaken allegiance relation (it was determined here how often and in which solemnity the weaker partner is obligated to read the covenant treaty publicly and to remind himself and his servants of the duties concerning the stronger partner).
  4. The undertaking of the already irrevocable act of covenant-making (cutting). It was performed in the following way: two partners passed between halves of split (cut) animals; going on the ground soaked with their blood, they were passing as if through the sphere of death – in fact, the alliance had to be indissoluble, for life-and-death.
  5. The recording that the covenant, ground on such stipulations, was made, whereby often a mound was piled up, or a tree was planted; also, a hymn was composed.
  6. The description of the laws governing the daily relationships between two covenant partners.

Like a clamp, the external elements of the literary structure of the document (of the treaty) embraced the four central elements.

The central elements were not only a fruit of the literary talent but a report of the covenant-making ceremony, really accomplished by both partners. This ceremony was composed exactly according to the four consecutive elements 2, 3, 4, and 5 – it was performed according to the universally binding political-religious ceremonial.