Footnotes to the publication:
The Revelation of Purgatory
in Job 26:5-6 and Rev 20:11-15
Wojciech Kosek

[1] Cf. T. Krzesik, Problematyka czyśćca w polskim przepowiadaniu po Soborze Watykańskim II [The Problem of Purgatory in the Polish Preaching after the Second Vatican Council] (series: Ancilla verbi, 5), Kraków 2017, pp. 24-25.
[2] Cf. F. Varillon, Zarys doktryny katolickiej [Outline of Catholic Doctrine], translated by E. Krasnowolska, Warszawa 1972, p. 572.
[3] This issue will be analyzed in more detail in this article a little later, as the Apocalypse in the image of the Last Judgment alludes to the dwelling of the dead in the sea – cf. Rev 20:13.
[4] Cf. Bushell M. S., Tan M. D., «BibleWorks for Windows» version 6.0. A computer program for analyzing the Old and New Testaments. Copyright © 2003 BibleWorks, LLC. Hereinafter referred to as BibleWorks 6.0. In BibleWorks 6.0., it is available The BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Complete and unabridged. By Francis Brown, S.R. Driver, and Charles Briggs (all D. D., D.Litt.), finished in 1906 and based upon several works of Wilhelm Gesenius (and editors), dated 1833, 1854, 1858, and 1895. Significant Hebrew formatting modifications and improvements made by Michael S. Bushell, 2001, to conform to lemma and inflected Hebrew forms and typeface. Further quoted as BDB-Gesenius Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. In the same lexicon, entry 9529 I. רְפָאִים shades, ghosts, name of the dead in Sheol – masculine plural noun: shadows, ghosts, name of the dead in Sheol. Cf. also F. Varillon, Zarys doktryny katolickiej, op.cit., p.575.
[5] Cf. M. Zerwick, Biblical Greek: Illustrated by examples. English Edition adapted from the Fourth Latin Edition by Joseph Smith. Ninth Reprint, Roma 2011, p. 236: “The «theological passive» is a name given to the passive used in order to avoid directly naming God as agent”.

[6] It should be noted that the exegete must not reject this revelation on the grounds that he feels it is expressed in a language that seems – for modern expectations – too related to the physical location of the Abyss somewhere underground or in water. The exegete must assimilate the knowledge, mentality, and conceptual language in which God chose to express the truth about the saving reality created by him. Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu, No. 35: “The interpreter must, as it were, go back wholly in spirit to those remote centuries of the East and with the aid of history, archaeology, ethnology, and other sciences, accurately determine what modes of writing, so to speak, the authors of that ancient period would be likely to use, and in fact did use.” This Encyclical text, see on the Internet → click, please!

On the relationship between the natural and theological views of Israel against the views of the Ancient East, see J. Kosek, Model budowy świata według Księgi Hioba [Model of the Structure of the World According to the Book of Job], [in:] T. Jelonek, Z badań nad Biblią, nr 6, [From Studies on the Bible, No. 6] Kraków 2003, p. 201.

[7] Cf. Deut 26:14 with the footnote in Biblia Tysiąclecia³.
[8] Cf. A. Jankowski, Eschatologia biblijna Nowego Testamentu [Biblical Eschatology of the New Testament], Kraków 1987, p. 217.
[9] It is the understanding of, for example, M. Morawski, Świętych obcowanie, cz. 1: Komunia między duszami [The Communion of Saints, part 1: The Communion among Souls], Kraków 1903, pp. 133-134.
[10] A. Jankowski, Eschatologia biblijna Nowego Testamentu, op.cit, p. 217.
[11] Cf. Biblia Poznańska³, p. 909: Wstęp do Drugiej Księgi Machabejskiej [Introduction to the Second Book of Maccabees].
[12] A. Jankowski, Eschatologia biblijna Nowego Testamentu, op.cit., p. 216: “Following the image of God weighing human deeds on the scale, as a further consequence of such an evaluation, there appears a category of people who occupy an intermediate position between the righteous and the ungodly. They are to be purified by the fire of Gehenna. […] The community at Qumran also believes in such purifying furnace.”
[13] Cf. P. Grelot, Śmierć [Death], [in:] X. Léon-Dufour (ed.), Słownik teologii biblijnej [Dictionary of Biblical Theology], 3rd edition, translated by K. Romaniuk, Poznań 1990, p. 944.
[14] Cf. K. Rahner, Fegfeuer, [in:] Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, 1960, Verlag, Herder, Freiburg, vol. IV, col. 51-55, col. 52.
[15] Cf. R. K. Rittgers, The reformation of suffering: Pastoral theology and lay piety in late medieval and early modern Germany, Oxford 2012, p. 195.
[16] Cf. BDB-Gesenius Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, op.cit., 2903 I. חוּל [חִיל] vb. whirl, dance, writhe.
[17] Cf. E. C. Hostetter, An Elementary Grammar of Biblical Hebrew (series: Biblical languages: Hebrew), Sheffield 2000, p. 129-130: “Apart from a few instances in late Biblical Hebrew, the linguistic features of which are found in those books composed at a relatively late date, no Piel, Pual or Hithpael occur for hollow terms. Instead, substitute forms for these three stems were created by means of the repetition of the final root letter and the insertion of holem waw after the initial radical. These forms are designated as Polel and Polal (in place of Piel and Pual) and Hithpolel (for Hithpael)”.

[18] Cf. H. F. W. Gesenius (Author), E. Kautzsch (Editor), A. E. Cowley (Editor), J. Euting (Contributor), M. Lidzbarski (Contributor), Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar, London 1910, § 58. The Pronominal Suffixes of the Verb: “The pronominal suffixes appended to the verb express the accusative of the personal pronoun.” See in BibleWorks 6.0. Moreover, on the Internet:  Html version ← click, please! or the other version, namely  PDF version ← click, please!

[19] Cf. D. Robinson, E. Levy, The Masoretes and the Punctuation of Biblical Hebrew, Bible Society in Israel, 2002 – on the Internet → click here, please! Cf. also on the Internet L. Hunyadi, Tanach Cantillation Concordance: A unique way to look at the Hebrew Bibleclick, please!
[20] Cf. H. F. W. Gesenius (Author), E. Kautzsch (Editor), A. E. Cowley (Editor), J. Euting (Contributor), M. Lidzbarski (Contributor), Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar, op.cit., § 15. The Accents.
[21] A particularly important case for Psa, Prov, Job is when the Rebbia mugrash accent is before Sillùq and Dehi before Atnah – in which case their role changes to be conjunctive accents unless at least two toneless syllables precede the main disjunctive accent. Cf. Ibid: “Here, to avoid misunderstanding, we shall only notice further the rule that in the accentuation of the books תא״ם, the Rebbia mugrash before Sillùq, and the Dehi before Atnah, must be changed into conjunctives, unless at least two toneless syllables precede the principal disjunctive. For this purpose Šewâ mobile after Qameṣ, Sere, or Ḥolem (with Metheg) is to be regarded as forming a syllable.” Regarding Job 26:5, it should be noted that the situation discussed here applies, except that here, however, two required toneless syllables precede the main disjunctive accent – they are before Atnah. Thus, the accent Rebbia mugrash in Job 26:5 is a disjunctive accent.
[22] Cf. also Job 26:5-6 on the broader context, as described in the book: A. Salvesen, Textual Criticism, Translation Studies, and Symmachus’s Version in the Book of Job, “Textus” 30 (2021) 43-63; DOI: ← click, please!, p. 59-61.
[23] Cf. K. Rahner, Fegfeuer, [in:] Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, 1960, Verlag, Herder, Freiburg, vol. IV, col. 51-55.
[24] One searched in BibleWorks 6.0, giving in the Command Center for WTM: .πυρ θειον.
[25] Cf. M. Morawski, Świętych obcowanie, part 1: Komunia między duszami, op.cit., p. 138-139.
[26] Cf. A. Nosol, Zstąpił do piekieł [He Descended into Hell], “Ateneum Kapłańskie” 439 (1982), 170-178, 173.
[27] Cf. S. Haręzga, Błogosławieństwa Apokalipsy [The Blessings of the Apocalypse], Katowice 1992, pp. 80-98.
[28] Cf. THAYER Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament in BibleWorks 6.0: 1148 γίνομαι; cf. R. Popowski, Wielki słownik grecko-polski Nowego Testamentu [The Great Greek-Polish Dictionary of the New Testament], 3rd edition, Warszawa 1997, p. 108-110: γίνομαι, mainly the point B. It functions as a substitute for εἰμί, namely: to be, to turn out.
[29] The Hebrew text speaks literally about joining one’s people. Cf. Gen 25:8 (Abraham’s death); 27:17 (Ishmael’s); 35:29 (Isaac’s); 49:29.33 (Jacob’s); Num 20:24 (Aaron’s); Num 27:13; 31:2; Deut 32:50 (Moses’) – one searched in BibleWorks 6.0, giving in the Command Center for WTM: 'אל עם *1 אסף. One can find other terms by searching in the Greek Bible, for example – for BGM: 'προστιθημι προς * * – to be joined to. The result is: to be joined to one’s fathers (τοὺς πατέρας), people (τὸν λαὸν), family (τὸ γένος).
[30] Cf. P. Ostański, Objawienie Jezusa Chrystusa. Praktyczny komentarz do Apokalipsy [The Revelation of Jesus Christ. A Practical Commentary on the Apocalypse], Ząbki 2005, p. 324. Cf. R. Popowski, Wielki słownik grecko-polski Nowego Testamentu, op.cit., p. 482: πελεκίζομαι. Cf. also Mt 14:10, where there is another term with this meaning – ἀποκεφαλίζω: Herod beheaded (ἀπεκεφάλισεν) John in prison.
[31] Cf. P. Middleton, The Violence of the Lamb. Martyrs as Agents of Divine Judgement in the Book of Revelation (series: Library of New Biblical Studies, 586), New York 2020, p. 230: the author shows the parallelism between Rev 20:4 and Rev 6:9.
[32] Cf. A. Jankowski, Eschatologia biblijna Nowego Testamentu, op.cit., p. 218; see also: Idem, Królestwo Boże w przypowieściach [The Kingdom of God in Parables], Kraków 1997, p. 209-213. Cf. also S. Głowa, I. Bieda, Breviarium fidei. Wybór doktrynalnych wypowiedzi Kościoła [Breviarium fidei. A Selection of Doctrinal Statements of the Church], Poznań 1988, VIII. 108. Cf. also P. Podeszwa, Paschalna pamięć o Jezusie. Studium egzegetyczno-teologiczne wyrażenia ἡ μαρτυριά Ἰησου w Apokalipsie św. Jana [The Paschal Memory about Jesus. An Exegetical-Theological Study of the Expression ἡ μαρτυριά Ἰησου in the Revelation of St. John] (series: Studia i Materiały [Studies and Materials] 142), Poznań 2011, p. 131-135.
[33] Cf. A. Jankowski, Eschatologia biblijna Nowego Testamentu, op.cit., p. 210-211.
[34] Cf. S. Głowa, I. Bieda, Breviarium fidei, op.cit., IX. 28.
[35] Cf. Biblia Poznańska³: the commentary on Rev 20:15 – not found written means somebody completely devoid of grace. Bearing in mind that the Last Judgement bases on deeds, one can see that this punishment is a consequence of them. Thus there is no condemnation regardless of the deeds.
[36] According to the French Dominican M.-E. Boismard’s hypothesis, accepted by biblical scholars of the second half of the 20th century, the Apocalypse consists of two separately written texts – cf. M.-E. Boismard, L’Apocalypse ou les Apocalypses de St Jean, “Revue Biblique” 56 (1949), 507-541. This fact exposes itself in logical inconsistencies, e.g., in the scene of the Last Judgment, where first the judgment of the dead is mentioned, and then that the sea and the Abyss delivered them – cf. A. Jankowski, Apokalipsa świętego Jana. Wstęp – przekład z oryginału – komentarz [The Apocalypse of Saint John. Introduction – translation from the original – commentary], Poznań 1959, p. 58-59, 271-272. However, in this part of the article, we will show that this alleged inconsistency – is the crucial information about the existence of purgatory!
[37] Cf. E. D. W. Burton, Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in New Testament Greek, Eugene, Ore, 2003, p. 71: point 154: The Perfect Participle. Cf. on the Internet → click, please!
[38] Cf. E. Nida, J. P. Louw, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains, an electronic version in BibleWorks 6.0, point 85.40: ἵστημι – may very well imply a standing position, but what is in focus is not the stance but the location.
[39] Cf. L. García Ureña, Narrative and Drama in the Book of Revelation: A Literary Approach (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series, 175), translated by D. Murphy, Cambridge 2019, p. 70. One should note that the author on p. 123 classifies Rev 20:11 itself into a different type of description, referred to as the integrated (ἐν τῇ διηγήσει) descriptions – the integrated descriptions ἐν τῇ διηγήσει. She does so by referring to the work: H. Bonheim, The Narrative Modes: Technique of the Short Story, Cambridge 1982, p. 24. However, the belonging of Rev 20:11 to the larger fragment of Rev 20:11-15 as a thematic whole makes it possible to understand it as an element of a structure belonging to such type of descriptions in which the vision’s scenery seen by the Apostle at the first moment expands as time goes on – and such a feature already characterizes the καὶ εἶδον type descriptions, previously discussed by the author.
[40] Cf. also A. Jankowski, Eschatologia biblijna Nowego Testamentu, op.cit., p. 212: a commentary on Rev 7:9-12; cf. S. Głowa, I. Bieda, Breviarium fidei, op.cit., IX, 44.
[41] J. Bochenek, Świętych obcowanie w nauce Stanisława Hozjusza [The Communion of Saints in the Teaching of Stanisław Hozjusz], Lublin 1960, p. 85.
[42] Cf. S. Głowa, I. Bieda, Breviarium fidei, op.cit., VIII, 113.
[43] Cf. A. Jankowski, Eschatologia biblijna Nowego Testamentu, op.cit., p. 212; P. Grelot, Śmierć [Death], [in:] X. Léon-Dufour (ed.), Słownik teologii biblijnej, op.cit., p. 946-947.
[44] Cf. S. Głowa, I. Bieda, Breviarium fidei, op.cit., VIII, 116.
[45] Cf. Ibid, VIII, 105.
[46] Cf. R. Rubinkiewicz, «Duchy zamknięte w więzieniu». Interpretacja 1 P 3,19 w świetle Hen 10,4.12, [‘Spirits Locked in Prison.’ An Interpretation of 1Pet 3:19 in Light of Hen 10:4.12], “Roczniki Teologiczno-Kanoniczne”, vol. XXVIII, zeszyt 1, 1981, pp. 77-86.85 – on passivum theologicum as applied to God’s act of judgment against Satan.